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Green Chemistry and Its 12 Principles

Green chemistry is the use of chemical processes and materials that are environmentally friendly. 

Global warming is a problem that affects all of us. It is also a problem that will affect the planet for centuries to come. It affects the economy and the environment. It affects us all.

Green chemistry, also referred to as sustainable chemistry or eco-efficiency, is a set of design principles that are intended to improve the sustainability and the environmental management of a product, process, or system.

Green Chemistry and Its 12 Principles

These design principles are intended to be applicable to all industries. They are based on the recognition that the design of products, processes, and systems has significant impacts on the environment, which can be reduced in a variety of ways and that therefore improving the design can reduce the environmental impact of products, and processes. 

The movement of Green chemistry was born out of a desire to address the impact of traditional chemistry on the environment, but today its proponents say


Because green chemistry emphasizes the design of chemicals and processes to reduce their impact on the environment, it has the potential to significantly reduce the number of chemicals required to meet the needs of the economy, thereby reducing the total amount of waste generated, the number of natural resources required, and the amount of pollution generated.

The Green Chemistry concept first emerged in the 1990s when the environmental solving problem strategies were under observation by Europe and the United States.

Why Do We Need Green Chemistry?

When nature is facing global issues, wastage is destroying the cleanliness of the Earth, the usefulness of the resources has reached to end, then there is a need to start innovative, long-lasting, environmentally friendly products that can serve the World like green plants.

As the constitution of any state, when you have to root something, it starts with principles and regulations that must be followed. Green chemistry is a set of design principles.

Rules of Green Chemistry

Twelve rules of green chemistry were described in 1998 by the two scientists named; Anastas and Warner.

1. Prevention 

The first principle of green chemistry is prevention rather than cleanup. This means that instead of focusing on how to clean up a chemical once it has caused pollution, the focus is on preventing the pollution in the first place.

For example, instead of trying to find ways to clean up a river that has been polluted with waste, the focus is on finding ways to prevent the river from being polluted in the first place.

2. Atom Economy

When it comes to the production of materials, the atom Economy uses synthetic methods to utilize all materials either byproducts, secondary materials, or primary materials, such as metals and minerals, which are otherwise considered waste.

By using synthetic materials instead, the company is able to reduce its waste footprint, both in its operations and in its products. In addition, the company has been able to use these materials to create energy-efficient products, which have positive impacts on the environment.


3. Synthesis of Less Hazardous, low, or Without Toxicity Chemicals

One of the goals of green chemistry is to develop less hazardous, low, or without toxic chemicals. This is accomplished by using environmentally benign starting materials and reactions and avoiding processes or materials that produce undesirable byproducts.

This can reduce the environmental impact of the manufacturing process and lower the costs of producing goods and services, which reduces the cost of green chemistry.

4. Use of Safe Solvents and Auxiliaries

One of the key tenets of green chemistry is to use safe solvents and auxiliaries (such as separating agents) that are biodegradable and/or environmentally benign. These solvents and auxiliaries are also safe to use and do not require special disposal.

The use of green solvents and auxiliaries can reduce waste, energy, and water usage, and is a cost-effective way to reduce ecological impact.

5. Energy Efficacy

It is a systematic approach to the synthesis of complex molecules and the reduction of waste by using renewable and/or recycled carbon-containing feedstocks, renewable and/or non-toxic solvents and other chemicals. It is also known as eco-chemistry and reduces energy use and waste, improves safety, and increases productivity and profitability.

It is monitored by the minimal use of it, or by the replacement with synthetic methods being carried out at adequate temperature and pressure.

6. Designation of Safer Chemicals

By preserving the efficacy of reaction with the help of toxicologists and chemists who deals by reducing the use of highly reactive but adversely affecting materials. The designation of chemicals as “safer” or “unsafe” is a complicated and controversial process, which involves trying to assess the impact of a chemical on human health and the environment.

Different people use different criteria when making this assessment. Toxicologists who use animal-based tests may use different criteria than toxicologists who use human-based tests. In addition, each test may use different criteria to determine what a “safe” level is.

7. Feedstock and Raw Materials

Feedstock and Raw Materials underuse must be renewable when required as they should be non-depleting for the sake of nature’s survival. A green chemistry approach to chemicals is one that seeks to reduce or eliminate the use of chemicals in the manufacturing process. This is done by designing new processes and products that are safer for people and the environment.

Green chemistry seeks to improve safety, health, and the environment by reducing, reusing, and recycling chemical compounds. It is a scientific discipline that seeks to reduce waste and improve the safety and health of people and the environment.

8. Derivatization

Derivatization in excessive form without the need should be minimized because these reagents such as blocking agents, protection, and modification of processes cause wastage. Derivatization can be controlled by the use of enzymes that are specific. Today, the derivatization of excessive waste into useful products is becoming more and more common.

However, there is a trade-off with this excess waste is typically much more difficult to treat than conventional waste. The end product is typically less useful, which may lead to increased waste generation. Derivatization is also a costlier process than conventional waste treatment.

9. Catalysis

Catalysis is favorable by the use of catalytic reagents that should be selective. Catalyst not only serves for reuse but also doesn’t generates waste. Catalysis is the use of a catalyst to speed up a chemical reaction by making it go faster.

The catalyst can be a solid, liquid, or gas. It can be used to break down substances, convert substances to other substances, or change the properties of substances. Catalysts are used in many ways, such as to make reactions faster, break down substances, control the rate of a reaction and block the reaction of a substance. 

10. Degradative Design

Degradative design of the chemicals serves at the end by degradation into components and not blocking the environmental cycles. There are many chemicals in our daily lives that we are not even aware of. The vast majority of these chemicals are used in products that we use every day and that we do not even think about. The concern is that some of these chemicals could cause harm to people or the environment.

One of the most important chemical products is chlorine. Chlorine is used to make a variety of chemical products, including chlorine dioxide. Chlorine is used to disinfect drinking water and purify wastewater. Other products include bleach, disinfectant, and acid.

11. Pollution Prevention By Real-Time Analysis

Pollution prevention by real-time analysis should be made by the in-process checking and control of hazardous and any toxic substances. One of the biggest challenges facing the world today is the fact that the volume of industrial pollutants produced around the world is increasing. Even the technologies to clean them up are improving. As a result, air pollution is becoming a major global health threat.

There are many ways to prevent pollution, such as: making sure all of your waste gets collected before it gets sent to the dump; using only organic materials in your home and garden, such as manure and compost; using only biodegradable materials where possible; and, recycling as much as possible.

12. Safe Chemistry Management for Accident Prevention

After the control, there must be Safe chemistry management for accident prevention in case of explosion, release, or burst of any accident. Maintaining safe chemistry management is a critical step in accident prevention. It helps to reduce the number of hazardous materials that are generated and to ensure that the wrong chemicals are not mixed up.

Examples of Green Chemistry

Water is considered a classic example of green solvents that are reusable and have a renewable resource. Supercritical carbon dioxide is also one of the green solvents when it is limited to a specific area. Bioengineering and some techniques play a role in green chemistry such as supercritical water oxidation, dry media reactions, etc.

Hydrazine, 1,3-propanediol, lactide, Biosuccinic acids, and many other techniques, reagents, preventions, and processes are the part of green chemistry playing role in the control of pollution and wastage caused by the classical or typical chemistry.

Advantages of Green Chemistry

Green chemistry is an approach to chemical manufacturing that strives to reduce the impact of chemical products on the environment. It is the science of designing chemical processes so that they are not only safe and efficient but also more environmentally friendly than traditional methods and processes.

It is an approach that is characterized by the use of eco-friendly solvents, reusables, and other renewable materials.

Some major benefits of green chemistry seen socially are 

  • For some paint companies, costs have been reduced by the carbon footprint reduction but their performance has increased.

  • Waste gases usually released from the fermentation processes are used in producing fuels and valuable chemicals.

  • Replacement of chlorofluorocarbons by the naturally occurring CO2 will help us from ozone layer depletion.

Major Future Aspect

The same idea applies to a range of other products, such as wood pulp, biodegradable plastics, and construction materials. You can also produce your own fuel for your car, home, or business by converting food waste to biogas at one of many commercial anaerobic digesters.

A second obvious example is producing biodegradable plastics from one of the many available feedstocks. Plastic pollution is a growing problem in our oceans and is particularly visible in the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. If you have food waste, you can use it to create biodegradable plastics.

Another example is the use of biofuels, which produce less greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline or diesel fuel but have a higher carbon footprint than other renewable fuels.

Another example is the use of vertical farming where crops are grown in vertical chambers in a controlled environment, eliminating the need for soil and nutrients.


Polyethene has become one of the major parts of the plastic society that takes a long time for degradation, in regard to green chemistry, the microbe has been discovered by Japanese researchers that can break down PET or polyethene.


Inventions, discoveries, and researches are of vital importance for the welfare and modernization of mankind, but it requires the green rules and those chemical aspects which could help us live with it for a long-lasting time through the precautions, rules, and preventive measures.

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